Essential oils

Essential oils are obtained through the steam-distillation of aromatic plants and trees. An essential oil can also be called a distilled essence. Pure and natural essential oils do not contain any fatty substances, they are simply made up of volatile aromatic molecules.


Steam distillation is one of the oldest extraction methods and the one that is the best suited to the aromatic material, especially if it is to be used therapeutically. The plants to be distilled are put into a still; when heated, the water turns into steam, then filters through the plants, volatilizing and drawing out the aromatic molecules, before re-condensing inside the refrigerant spiral. At the outlet of the still, an essencer or Florentine flask separates the essential oil floating on the surface from the distillation water, also called floral water.

The advantages of super critical carbon dioxide as a solvent is its purity; it leaves no residue, the high solubility of organic compounds (particularly flavors and fragrances and other essential oils) and the ease of recovery. After extraction the liquid carbon dioxide is removed by reducing the pressure and allowing the gas to be evolved. This is carried out at relatively low temperatures and so thermally labile materials (such materials being frequently found in essential oils) are not decomposed.

Some essences such as jasmine, rose, tuberose, hyacinth, etc. are more difficult to extract by steam distillation. These essences are usually obtained through solvent extraction using hexane. The plant or flower is macerated in a volatile solvent that dissolves the waxes and volatile molecules of the plant. Once the solvent is evaporated, the resulting paste, called a concrete, is heated and diluted with alcohol. The alcohol is then eliminated through evaporation.

Enfleurage is an ancient extraction technique that consists of spreading delicate flower petals (orange blossom, jasmine, rose) on frames covered in purified vegetable or animal fat, and then pressed. The frames are turned daily and the flowers replaced until the fat has reached its saturation point. Once this is achieved, the fragrant fat (now called a pommade) is collected and heated. After decantation, alcohol is added to the pommade to separate the extract from the fat. Once the alcohol has evaporated, we are left with an absolute.

Another extraction method is cold expression. Reserved for citrus fruits such as orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine and mandarin. The aromatic moleculres are extracted by applying direct pressure on the zest or whole fruit. The pressure causes the oil cells in the zest to rupture and be collected. The essential oil and the juice are then separated by centrifugal force.

This process is carried out similarly to normal distillation but the essential oil is collected in batches as distillation proceeds. These batches are called fractions. Ylang-Ylang is produced in this way. Hence, the different varieties: Ylang-Ylang #1, Ylang-Ylang #2, Ylang-Ylang #3.

This relatively new technique captures the aroma or fragrance of a living plant or flower. A bell-shaped glass is placed over the flower and a neutral gas is inserted into the glass. The gas will pick up the aromatic molecules from the flower. It will then be analyzed to produce a molecular identity card of the perfume of the flower.


Never leave essential oil bottles where children or pets can get to them.
Be extremely vigilant and store them with caution.

Essential oils are very sensitive to light (sun, neons, etc.) and to heat. Keep them in their original amber colored or cobalt colored bottles. Avoid storing them in plastic bottles.

Do not use an essential oil you are not familiar with. Respect the indicated channels of absorption.

For therapeutic applications, use a dilution of 1 to 2 % essential oil(s) (1 or 2 drops for 100 drops of excipient) is recommended for adults.

Essential oils are not soluble in water. Use an emulsifier or solubilizer that helps suspend the essential oils in water (Tween 80).

Essential oils are extremely powerful substances; they should therefore be used with great precaution.

To ensure the effectiveness of an essential oil, it is important to know its properties, its recommended dosage and its methods of application. We encourage you to research the subject of Aromatherapy and Essential oils (Internet, books, etc.) before using any product you are not familiar with.

Some essential oils are toxic in large doses, others can produce skin irritations, even burns, while others are sedating.


ANISEED, STAR (Illicum Verum)
China – Fruits – Anethol

BASIL (Ocimum Sanctum)
India – Flowering plant – Methyl chavicol

BAY LAUREL (Laurus Nobilis)
Leaves – Cineol, a-terpinyle acetate, linalol

BERGAMOT (Citrus Bergamia)
Ivory Coast – Zest – Limonene, linalyl acetate, linalool

BLACK PEPPER (Piper Nigrum)
India – Fruits – Caryophyllene, pinene, cineol, limonene

BLACK SPRUCE (Picea Mariana)
Canada – Leaves & branches – Bornyl acetate

CADE (Juniperus Oxycedrus)
Spain – Branches and wood – Alfa-cedrene, beta-cedrene

CAJEPUT (Melaleuca Leucadendron)
Vietnam – Leaves & branches – 1,8 cineol

CAMPHOR (Cinnamomum Camphora)
China – Wood & branches – Limonene, pinene, cineol

CASSIA (Cassia Tora)
China – Leaves – Cinnamic aldehyde

CEDAR LEAF (Thuja Occidentalis)
Canada – Leaves & branches – Thujone, fenchone

CEDAR WOOD ATLAS (Cedrus Atlantica)
Morocco – Wood - Himachalene

CHAMOMILE, ROMAN (Anthemis Nobilis)
Flowering tops – Angelate, methacrylate

CINNAMON LEAVES (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)
Sri Lanka – Leaves – Eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, linalol

CITRONELLA JAVA (Cymbopogon Winterianus)
Vietnam – Herb – Citronellal, geraniol, citronelol

CLOVE BUD (Eugenia Caryophyllata)
USA – Flowering buds - Eugenol

CORIANDER (Coriandrum Sativum)
Russia – Seeds - Linalool

CYPRESS (Cupressus Sempervirens)
France – Leaves & branches – Alpha-pinene, d-carene

EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS (Eucalyptus Globulus)
China – Leaves - Eucalyptol

EUCALYPTUS LEMON (Eucalyptus Citriodora)
Brazil – Leaves - Citronellal

EUCALYPTUS RADIATA (Eucalyptus Radiata)
Australia – Leaves - Eucalyptol

FENNEL (Foeniculum Vulgare)
USA – Seeds - Anethol

FIR BALSAM (Abies Balsamea)
Canada – Needles & twigs – Pinene, carene

GERANIUM (Pelargonium Graveolens)
China – Leaves & flowers – Citronellol, geraniol

GINGER (Zinziber Officinale)
China – Roots - Zingiberine

GRAPEFRUIT, PINK (Ruby Red) (Citrus Paradisi)
Argentina – Zest - Limonene

GRAPEFRUIT, WHITE (Citrus Paradisi)
USA – Zest - Limonene

JUNIPER (Juniperus Communis)
France – Berries – Pinene, myrcene

LAVANDIN (Lavandula Hybrida Abrialis)
France – Flowering tops – Linalool, linalyl acetate

LAVENDER OFFICINALIS (Lavandula Angustifolia)
France – Flowering tops – Linalool, linalyl acetate

LAVENDER SPIKE (Lavandula Latifolia)
France – Flowering tops – Linalool, camphor

LEMON (Citrus Limonum)
USA – Zest – Limonene, citral

LEMONGRASS (Cymbopogon Schoenanthus)
India – Herb – Citral

LIME (Citrus Aurantifolia)
Mexico – Fruits - Limonene

MARJORAM, SPANISH (Thymus Mastichina)
Spain – Flowering plant – 1,8 cineol, limonene, linalool

NUTMEG (Myristica Fragrans)
Indonesia – Seeds – Pinene, sabinene, myristicine

ORANGE, SWEET (Citrus Sinensis)
Brazil – Zest - Limonene

OREGANO, SPANISH (Thymus Capitatus)
Spain – Flowering tops - Carvacrol

PALMAROSA (Cymbopogon Martini)
France – Herb - Geraniol

PATCHOULI (Pogostemon Cablin)
Indonesia – Leaves - Patchoulol

PEPPERMINT (Mentha Piperita)
USA – Flowering plant – Menthol, menthone

PETITGRAIN BIGARADE (Citrus Aurantium Amara)
Paraguay – Leaves & twigs – Linalyl acetate, linalool

PINE, WHITE (Pinus Strobus)
Canada – Needles & twigs, Pinene

ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus Officinalis)
Tunisia – Flowers & leaves – 1,8 cineol, pinene, camphor

ROSEWOOD (Aniba Rosaeodora)
India – Wood chips – Linalool

SAGE (Salvia Officinalis)
Hungary – Leaves – Thujone, camphor

SPEARMINT (Mentha Spicata)
China – Flowering tops – l-carvone

TANGERINE (Citrus Reticulata)
Cypress – Zest - Limonene

TEA TREE (Melaleuca Alternifolia)
Australia – Leaves & twigs – Terpinene-1-ol-4, terpinene

THYME, RED (Thymus Vulgaris)
France – Leaves & tops – Thymol, p-cymene

THYME, WHITE (Thymus Vulgaris)
France – Leaves & tops – Thymol, p-cymene

Brazil – Resin - Pinene

VETIVERT (Vetiveria Zizanioides)
Haiti – Roots – Vetyvene, vetyvones

YLANG-YLANG #3 (Cananga Odorata)
Comoro Islands – Flowers – Caryophyllene, germacrene

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